Papillomaviradae are non-enveloped DNA viruses composed of icosahedral capsids. They are epitheliotropic resulting in proliferative lesions termed papilloma (warts) of which there are 2 histological types namely classical papillomas and fibropapillomas (which contain a fibrous core of connective tissue and termed sarcoids). Papilloma viruses gain access to basal epithelial cells through abrasions or where epithelial cells become naturally exposed at mucocutaneous junctions.  Infected cells are stimulated into excessive growth by three viral encoded oncogenes namely E5, E6 and E7. 

Who Should Enrol


Course Design

Blended course

Course Highlights

CPD Points

Learning Outcomes

Continued Professional Development


Test: Question and Answer


South African Veterinary Council (SAVC)

1 CPD Point




Pass the test with 80% - Retries allowed: 3

1.0 General Point

1.0 Max Points

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Bovine Papillomaviruses