Bile is produced continuously and is composed of 97% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids, and lecithin) and 200 meq/l inorganic salts. Hepatocytes excrete cholesterol and bilirubin into the canaliculi, then water, bicarbonate and sodium ions are secreted via the lining of the ducts. Bile flows from canaliculi to terminal bile ducts, to hepatic ducts and then the cystic duct (which enters into the gall bladder (GB)). Bile is stored in the gallbladder until stimulation from fatty acids in the duodenum results in release of cholecystokinin and subsequent contraction of the GB. Bile then travels down the common bile duct and enters the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla. 

Who Should Enrol


Course Design

Blended Course

Course Highlights

CPD Points

Learning Outcomes

Continued Professional Development


Test: Question and Answer


South African Veterinary Council (SAVC)

1 CPD Point



Pass the test with 80% - Retries allowed: 3

1.0 General Point

1.0 Max Points

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Canine cholangitis, cholecystitis and gallbladder mucocoeles